GREEK EDUCATION 21 I will honour the temples and the religion of my fore- fathers. So help me, Aglauros, Enyalios, Ares, Zeus, Thallo, Auxo and Hegemone,"* ' The ordinary education now came completely to a stop, ;and for a year the ephebus had to labour hard in company with all the youths of his own age learning the use of arms and the various military movements, and practising gymnastics under teachers and a censor appointed by the State. At the end of this year of training, he received a spear and a shield from the State, and went off to serve for another year as one of the patrol force that guarded the frontiers and kept smugglers and brigands in check. But there were occasional periods of relaxation for the ephebi in the midst of their strenuous training* A special place was reserved for them in the theatre, and they were frequently called on to take part in the religious processions on the feast-days of the gods* Their varied occupa- tions in the latter function are immortalized on the wonderful Parthenon frieze. The ephebic training, it may be added, went on without change till Athens fell under the power of Macedonia and had no longer any need of soldiers. The New Education The new education was the inevitable result of the profound economic and political changes that came over the Athenian State during the first half of the Fifth Century B.C. Before this time the Athenians had been mainly an agricultural com- munity, but the great extension of trade following on the endeavour of Themistocles to make Athens the greatest maritime power in Greece called into being a new class of wealthy merchants, to dispute the claims of the landed aristocracy who had previously been the rulers* [The final outcome of the conflict between them was the establishment of a democracy in which every free-born citizen, whether rich or poor, had an equal shareJ Then came the life-and-death struggle with Persia, from which Athens emerged with great glory and with added power. With doubtful wisdom and justice, she sehsed the opportunity to convert the league of allied States, by means of which the victory had been won> into an empire on which she imposed her will This extension of her power opened up fresh chances for the ambitious * Gmberger, JBrsiehwg im Klassiscfon Alterthum^ in, 61.